Declare a constructor by creating a function with the same name as its class (plus, optionally, an additional identifier as described in Named constructors). The most common form of constructor, the generative constructor, creates a new instance of a class:

class Point {
  double x = 0;
  double y = 0;

  Point(double x, double y) {
    // See initializing formal parameters for a better way
    // to initialize instance variables.
    this.x = x;
    this.y = y;

The this keyword refers to the current instance.

Initializing formal parameters

The pattern of assigning a constructor argument to an instance variable is so common, Dart has initializing formal parameters to make it easy.

Initializing parameters can also be used to initialize non-nullable or final instance variables, which both must be initialized or provided a default value.

class Point {
  final double x;
  final double y;

  // Sets the x and y instance variables
  // before the constructor body runs.
  Point(this.x, this.y);

The variables introduced by the initializing formals are implicitly final and only in scope of the initializer list.

Default constructors

If you don’t declare a constructor, a default constructor is provided for you. The default constructor has no arguments and invokes the no-argument constructor in the superclass.

Constructors aren’t inherited

Subclasses don’t inherit constructors from their superclass. A subclass that declares no constructors has only the default (no argument, no name) constructor.

Named constructors

Use a named constructor to implement multiple constructors for a class or to provide extra clarity:

const double xOrigin = 0;
const double yOrigin = 0;

class Point {
  final double x;
  final double y;

  Point(this.x, this.y);

  // Named constructor
      : x = xOrigin,
        y = yOrigin;

Remember that constructors are not inherited, which means that a superclass’s named constructor is not inherited by a subclass. If you want a subclass to be created with a named constructor defined in the superclass, you must implement that constructor in the subclass.

Invoking a non-default superclass constructor

By default, a constructor in a subclass calls the superclass’s unnamed, no-argument constructor. The superclass’s constructor is called at the beginning of the constructor body. If an initializer list is also being used, it executes before the superclass is called. In summary, the order of execution is as follows:

  1. initializer list
  2. superclass’s no-arg constructor
  3. main class’s no-arg constructor

If the superclass doesn’t have an unnamed, no-argument constructor, then you must manually call one of the constructors in the superclass. Specify the superclass constructor after a colon (:), just before the constructor body (if any).

In the following example, the constructor for the Employee class calls the named constructor for its superclass, Person. Click Run to execute the code.

class Person {
  String? firstName;

  Person.fromJson(Map data) {
    print('in Person');

class Employee extends Person {
  // Person does not have a default constructor;
  // you must call super.fromJson().
  Employee.fromJson( : super.fromJson() {
    print('in Employee');

void main() {
  var employee = Employee.fromJson({});
  // Prints:
  // in Person
  // in Employee
  // Instance of 'Employee'

Because the arguments to the superclass constructor are evaluated before invoking the constructor, an argument can be an expression such as a function call:

class Employee extends Person {
  Employee() : super.fromJson(fetchDefaultData());
  // ···

Super parameters

To avoid having to manually pass each parameter into the super invocation of a constructor, you can use super-initializer parameters to forward parameters to the specified or default superclass constructor. This feature can’t be used with redirecting constructors. Super-initializer parameters have similar syntax and semantics to initializing formal parameters:

class Vector2d {
  final double x;
  final double y;

  Vector2d(this.x, this.y);

class Vector3d extends Vector2d {
  final double z;

  // Forward the x and y parameters to the default super constructor like:
  // Vector3d(final double x, final double y, this.z) : super(x, y);
  Vector3d(super.x, super.y, this.z);

Super-initializer parameters cannot be positional if the super-constructor invocation already has positional arguments, but they can always be named:

class Vector2d {
  // ...

  Vector2d.named({required this.x, required this.y});

class Vector3d extends Vector2d {
  // ...

  // Forward the y parameter to the named super constructor like:
  // Vector3d.yzPlane({required double y, required this.z})
  //       : super.named(x: 0, y: y);
  Vector3d.yzPlane({required super.y, required this.z}) : super.named(x: 0);

Initializer list

Besides invoking a superclass constructor, you can also initialize instance variables before the constructor body runs. Separate initializers with commas.

// Initializer list sets instance variables before
// the constructor body runs.
Point.fromJson(Map<String, double> json)
    : x = json['x']!,
      y = json['y']! {
  print('In Point.fromJson(): ($x, $y)');

During development, you can validate inputs by using assert in the initializer list.

Point.withAssert(this.x, this.y) : assert(x >= 0) {
  print('In Point.withAssert(): ($x, $y)');

Initializer lists are handy when setting up final fields. The following example initializes three final fields in an initializer list. Click Run to execute the code.

import 'dart:math';

class Point {
  final double x;
  final double y;
  final double distanceFromOrigin;

  Point(double x, double y)
      : x = x,
        y = y,
        distanceFromOrigin = sqrt(x * x + y * y);

void main() {
  var p = Point(2, 3);

Redirecting constructors

Sometimes a constructor’s only purpose is to redirect to another constructor in the same class. A redirecting constructor’s body is empty, with the constructor call (using this instead of the class name) appearing after a colon (:).

class Point {
  double x, y;

  // The main constructor for this class.
  Point(this.x, this.y);

  // Delegates to the main constructor.
  Point.alongXAxis(double x) : this(x, 0);

Constant constructors

If your class produces objects that never change, you can make these objects compile-time constants. To do this, define a const constructor and make sure that all instance variables are final.

class ImmutablePoint {
  static const ImmutablePoint origin = ImmutablePoint(0, 0);

  final double x, y;

  const ImmutablePoint(this.x, this.y);

Constant constructors don’t always create constants. For details, see the section on using constructors.

Factory constructors

Use the factory keyword when implementing a constructor that doesn’t always create a new instance of its class. For example, a factory constructor might return an instance from a cache, or it might return an instance of a subtype. Another use case for factory constructors is initializing a final variable using logic that can’t be handled in the initializer list.

In the following example, the Logger factory constructor returns objects from a cache, and the Logger.fromJson factory constructor initializes a final variable from a JSON object.

class Logger {
  final String name;
  bool mute = false;

  // _cache is library-private, thanks to
  // the _ in front of its name.
  static final Map<String, Logger> _cache = <String, Logger>{};

  factory Logger(String name) {
    return _cache.putIfAbsent(name, () => Logger._internal(name));

  factory Logger.fromJson(Map<String, Object> json) {
    return Logger(json['name'].toString());


  void log(String msg) {
    if (!mute) print(msg);

Invoke a factory constructor just like you would any other constructor:

var logger = Logger('UI');
logger.log('Button clicked');

var logMap = {'name': 'UI'};
var loggerJson = Logger.fromJson(logMap);